This is a kind of mono-graphic research, the object of which is one or more cases. Objectives of a survey are focused on the cases’ detailed description and interpretation of the material to be learned in order to understand and analyze the historical processes that occur.
Where Are the Roots?
This method was developed in the framework of the Chicago School of Sociology, the creation of which was associated with the scientific activities of Robert Ezra Park, who started in the year 1916. | Exploring the city as a social environment in which he used the method of case studies, biographical method (“history of life”) and direct observations.
In the methodical plan, a feature of the Chicago School has had deals with empiricism. However, the basis of this technique lies in antiquity. One of the first caseologists was Socrates. The task of the teacher is to help their listeners on their own to gain the knowledge, which in a sense, already exists in their minds. Thousands of years later the use of the method, which was the ancestor of Socrates called mental fracture in education and nowadays his name is the case study method.
What Is It All About?
The method of case studies is not just a methodological innovation. It is a method of active learning based on real situations. We can say that this method is aimed at the development of specific knowledge or skills but rather on the development of general intellectual and communicative potential of students and teachers.
What Is the Case Based on This Context?
This is a small paper which allows not only to receive information but also to enjoy the atmosphere of what is happening. This helps students to imagine themselves in a real-life situation and not just to solve a complex problem. Below there is some more information about what it is.
- The first one comes from the general direction of the development of education. It focuses not on obtaining specific knowledge but on the formation of professional competence and skills of mental activity, personal development skills, with special attention paid to the ability of learning, the ability to process a lot of details;
- The second one comes from the development of the quality requirements of a professional who, in addition to meeting the requirements of the first trend, should also have the ability to behave properly in different situations.
Scientists consider the method of the case study as one of “advanced” active tutoring techniques.
Strengths of the Method
The strengths of the technique are:
- the possibility to work in groups on a single issue;
- reducing the degree of uncertainty in terms of time limits;
- use the principles of problem-based learning;
- the possibility for the students to get not only knowledge but also a deep understanding of theoretical concepts;
- ability to create new patterns of activity;
- developing a simple generalization of the information.
A case method requires students to be ready and have the skills of independent work. The lack of preparation, poor motivation can lead to a superficial discussion of the case. So, the case method for tutoring a foreign language is recommended for high school students to avoid this.
Not Universal Method
In addition, being a complex and effective method of tutoring, the case method is not universal and is used particularly successfully only in the combination with other techniques of teaching foreign languages. Actually, it does not require a compulsory language proficiency.
Techniques that are integrated into the case method are the following:
- It builds a model of a situation;
- system analysis. It is used for system presentation and analysis of the situation;
- thought experiment. It is the way of obtaining knowledge about the situation through its mental transformation;
- It describes the situation;
- problem approach. It represents problems in the situation studied;
- classification approach. It creates ordered lists of properties, parties that create the situation;
- game approach. It presents different behaviors;
- “brainstorming.” It generates ideas about the situation;
- It helps participants exchange the views on problems and the ways to solve them.
Use It for Learning Foreign Languages
It increases the level of the language knowledge in general. Use of terms with their understanding is more effective than simply memorizing them, as it requires the ability to use them;
- develops creative thinking into thinking in the language your study;
- develops presentation skills (the ability to publicly present your work);
- teaches to build different types of questions;
- develops the ability to debate, to argue the answers, which contributes to the skill of speaking without peeping in the text;
- improves reading skills;
- teaches to work in a team and develop a collective decision;
- allows you to solve individual and group work issues.
By analyzing the case, the students actually receive a turnkey solution that can be applied in similar circumstances. The increase in the “baggage” of the student-analyzed cases increases the probability of use of the solutions for the current situation and forms solving skills for more serious problems.
The process of creating cases is a complex educational system and is carried out in several stages.
The First Step of the Method
The formation of didactic purposes in the first step. At this stage, the case is determined by its place in the structure of the training course, identifying the knowledge, skills and competence of students. The methodical purpose may be an illustration of a theory and a purely practical situation or their combination. The case should be written in clear language, without unnecessary terminology
The construction of the case card. A map consists of certain theses, which are presented in the text. It is like a skeleton with information and details to solve the problem. Component diagram of the case includes:
- a) The action, actors with given characteristics;
- b) Description of a situation (symptoms);
- c) The elements of specified environment (external factors).
It is the social system for the case. Here we can include organizations, institutions, which are directly related to the theses.
It is the collection of information in the chosen system. Given information is objective, reliable and sufficient for the compilation of abstracts.
It is the construction of situation model. The case reflects the maximum activity of the system provided in the case.
It is the choice of the genre of the case. The teacher should select it.
It is about writing a case study text. This is the hardest part because it is necessary to analyze the information and think about the audience for which the case is completed.
It is the diagnostic accuracy and efficiency of the case. It conducts training and methodological experiment built in a certain pattern, in order to determine the effectiveness of the case.
It is the introduction of the case on the practice of tutoring.
So, we see that students who consider the case can predict and demonstrate their solution.
We also recommend you reading about a thesis as this is an important paper you have to do if you want to advance your academic career.
We hope that you have learnt something new here. Good luck with your studies!